In order to dispose of an objection grounded on a text in St. John, St. Ambrose first shows that the Arian interpretation lends countenance to the Manichæans; then, after setting forth the different ways of dividing the words in this same passage, he shows plainly that it cannot, without dishonour to the Father, be understood with such reference to the Godhead as the Arians give it, and expounds the true meaning thereon.
41. We have no reason, therefore, to fear the argument which the Arians, in their reckless manner of expounding, use to construct, showing that the Word of God was
made, for, say they, it is written:
That which has been made in Him is life.
42. First of all, let them understand that if they make the words
That which has been made to refer to the Godhead, they entangle themselves in the difficulties raised by the Manichæans, for these people argue:
If that which has been made in Him is life, then there is something which has not been made in Him, and is death, so that they may impiously bring in two principles. But this teaching the Church condemns.
43. Again, how can the Arians prove that the Evangelist actually said this? The most part of those who are learned in the Faith read the passage as follows:
All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that has been made. Others read thus:
All things were made by Him, and without Him was nothing made. Then they proceed:
What has been made, and to this they join the words
in Him; that is to say,
But whatsover is has been made in Him.But what mean the words
in Him? The Apostle tells us, when he says:
In Him we have our being, and live, and move. Acts 17:28
44. How be it, let them read the passage as they will, they cannot diminish the majesty of God the Word, in referring to His Person, as subject, the words
That which was made, without also doing dishonour to God the Father, of Whom it is written:
But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be made manifest that they are wrought in God. John 3:21 See then— here we read of man’s works being wrought in God, and yet for all that we cannot understand the Godhead as the subject of them. We must either recognize the works as wrought through Him, as the Apostle’s affirmation shows that
all things are through Him, and were created in Him, and He is before all, and all things exist together in Him, or, as the witness of the text here cited teaches us, we ought to regard the virtues whereby the fruit of life eternal is gained, as wrought in God— chastity, piety, devoutness, faith, and others of this kind, whereby the will of God is expressed.
45. Just as the works, then, are the expression of the will and power of God the Father, so are they of Christ’s, even as we read:
Created in Christ in good works; Ephesians 2:10 and in the psalm:
Peace be made in Your power; and again:
In wisdom have You made them all.
In wisdom have You made, mark you— not
You have made wisdom; for since all things have been made in wisdom, and Christ is the Wisdom of God, then this Wisdom is plainly not an accident, but a substance, and an everlasting one, but if the Wisdom has been made, then is it made in a worse condition than all things, for as much as it could not, by itself, be made Wisdom. If, then, being made is oftentimes referred to something accidental, not to the essence of a thing, so may creation also be referred to some end had in view.